(Current Affairs For SSC Exams) Science & Technology | March : 2014

Science & Technology, Defense, Environment [March-2014]

Potentially hazardous asteroid 2013 YP139 discovered

NASA discovered a new potentially hazardous asteroid named 2013 YP139 on 29 December 2013. It was confirmed by the NASA on 15 January2014. It was first discovered by NASA’s Near-Earth Object Widefield
Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE). The Researchers at the University of Arizona used the Spacewatch telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory southwest of Tucson to confirm the discovery. The 2013 YP139 is about 43 million kilometers from Earth. On the basis of Infrared brightness, it is found to be 650 meters in diameter and extremely dark like a piece of coal. NEOWISE‘s sophisticated software picked up the moving object against a background of stationary stars. The asteroid circles the Sun in an elliptical orbit titled to the plane of solar system. It is possible for its orbit to bring it as close as 482803 km from Earth, a little more than the distance to the Moon. But it will not come that close within the next century. NEOWISE was originally called as Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) which made the most comprehensive survey to date of
asteroids and comets. In 2010 and early 2011, WISE discovered more than 34000 asteroids and characterised 158000 throughout the solar system. Its reactivation in September 2013 followed 31 months in hibernation.

Moclic software to predict weather

Researcher from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) designed the software Monitoring Climate Change (Moclic) through which is possible to organise, store and operate geo-referenced data from climate elements. Moclic can calculate bio and agro climatic indicators such as humidity, aridity, rain erosion and rainfall concentration.

Using the new software information regarding temperature can be known more accurately which feeds on data from weather stations in any state or country. Moclic project allows an agronomist to obtain annual rainfall records and relate them to the crops production figures for explanation of a possible event. It is also possible to identify desiccation processes in a region which comes useful while considering the seeds that can resist droughts or the optimization of rainwater catching techniques, storage or types of irrigation. The software is very simple and can be used by decision making characters, as governors, breeders, physicians, farmers, students or anyone whose repercussions could  have economic politic or social effects.

First multi-coloured 3D Printer launched

World’s first 3D-printer Objet500 Connex3 was launched on 28 January 2014. The printer was manufactured by the USA based company Stratasys, the owner of the Mark Bot range of printers. Object500 Connex3 is the world’s first 3D printer that can produce multi-colour, multi material objects at the same time. It will be commercially available in the second quarter of 2014 and will cost around 330000 dollars. It enables users to get exact intended colour, material properties and surface finish as conceptualized. The printer uses three different base resins and 10 colour palettes and can craft a variety of objects like a pair of sports goggles, flexible shoes, headphones, a blender and even multi-colored football and bike helmets. It is touted to be better than the 3D printer the ProJet 5500X which was unveiled by Stratasys’s rival 3D Systems. ProJet 5500X offers a smaller range of colours: black, white, and certain shades of grey. However, since the size of the printer is large, it is mainly targeted toward major corporations and high-end designers.

What is it that determines the colour of anything?

Colour is the visual perception of the physical signal, the light, that eye receives. The colour depends on the kind of light that falls on anything and also that bounces off or passes through it. Light travels in waveform and each colour has its own wavelength. So, in other terms, colour depends on the wavelengths of light that reaches the surface of an object and that reach eyes after being reflected or transmitted by the object. Surface of any object has, in general, three effects on light falling over it — absorption, reflection and transmission. If an object absorbs all wavelengths of light falling on it, then it appears ‘black’ and if it reflects every wavelength of light falling on, it will appear ‘white’. If an object reflects wavelengths of light partly, absorbing the rest, then the reflected wavelengths ‘decide’ the colour of it. Thus the apparent colour of an object depends on the wavelength
of the light that it reflects. For example, a ‘red object’ observed in daylight appears red because it reflects only the waves producing red light.

We see green leaves as being green because chlorophyll in the leaves, because of its nature and chemical makeup, absorbs the all other wavelengths (colours) of the sunlight (called white light as it contains all wavelengths), except green. The green is reflected back out to the viewer making the leaves appear green. The light falling on the surface also determines the colour. If a piece of cloth which appears green in sunlight is viewed under red light it will appear black, because the pigments on the surface of that cloth have the property of reflecting only green light absorbing all other wavelengths falling on it. As red light has only wavelength corresponding
to red colour it is completely absorbed and as no colour is reflected back it appears black. Transparent objects do not reflect light, but transmit it. A ‘blue’ glass transmits only blue light, absorbing all other colours, so appears blue. A non-rigid ‘object’ like sky also has colour due to the phenomena called scattering. As sunlight strikes the upper atmosphere blue light is scattered the most by air molecules and suspended dust particles etc., which illuminates the whole sky, giving it its colour.


Dexter, a private information stealing virus, was detected by Computer Emergency Response Team – India (CERT-In) in online banking transaction space on 19 January 2014. The virus is particularly more threatening for the users of credit card while making payments at the shopping counters. When the credit card is swiped at the point of sale (POS), the virus Dexter steals the confidential data like card holder’s name, account number, expiration date, CVV code and other discretionary information. This leak of the information could lead to financial loss and phishing attacks on the card. Earlier in December 2013, RBI made it mandatory for debit card holders to punch in their PIN every time when they make a purchase. The order was passed following the spread of virus of Trojan Family which was detected at the Point of Sale (POS).

(Current Affairs For SSC Exams) Economic | March : 2014

March 2014

India’s International Investment Position released

Reserve Bank of India has released the statistical statement of the International Investment Position (IIP) of the quarter ended in September 2013. The statement shows following at a point in the time of the value and composition:

  • Financial assets of residents of an economy that are claims on non-residents and gold bullion held as reserve assets

  • Liabilities of residents of an economy to non-residents

The difference between an economy’s external financial assets and liabilities is its net IIP. Such balance sheet is an analysis of international accounts that will help in understanding sustainability and vulnerability of economy’s external sector.

Important highlights of the International Investment Position (IIP) are following for the quarter-ended September 2013:

Net claims of non-residents on India (as reflected by the net IIP) decreased by US$ 12.8 billion over the previous quarter to 296.2 billion US dollars as at end-September  2013. This change in the net position reflected a US$ 10.6 billion decrease in the value of foreign-owned assets in India vis-à-vis a US$ 2.2 billion increase in the value of Indian Residents’ financial assets abroad (Table 1).

Indian residents’ financial assets abroad stood at 436.7 billion US dollars as at end-September 2013 recording a marginal increase of US$ 2.2 billion over previous  quarter mainly due to increase of US$ 6.8 billion in other investment abroad including trade credit, loans and currency and deposits. Reserve assets, decreased by US$ 5.3 billion to US$ 277.2 billion as at end- September 2013. Direct investment increased marginally by US$ 0.6 billion.

Foreign-owned assets in India have decreased by 10.6 billion US dollars over the previous quarter to US$ 732.9 billion as at end- September 2013. The Direct investment in India has been reduced by 2.9 billion US dollars and portfolio investment in India has gone down by 13.3 billion US dollars. Among other investment liabilities, trade credit decreased by 1.9 billion US dollars and loans increased by 2.8 billion US dollars.

Effects of Rupee Depreciation: Variation in exchange rate of rupee vis-a-vis other currencies influenced change in liabilities, when valued in US dollars terms. Though there was a net inflow of US$ 6.6 billion during the period, equity liabilities in US dollars term decreased by 10.2 billion US dollars, from 340.7 billion US dollars in June  2013 to 330.5 billion US dollars in September 2013 due to the stock valuation effect resulting from rupee depreciation.

India became third largest crude oil importer in the World

India overtook Japan to become the third largest crude oil importer in the World. As per the data released by Reuters on 30 January 2014, India imported 3.86 million barrels-per-day of crude oil in the year 2013. India’s crude oil imports were nearly 6 percent higher than Japan’s customs-cleared imports of 3648372 barrels-per-day (211716710 kilolitres). Recently, China had overtaken USA to become the world’s largest importer of crude oil.

World’s Top Five Oil- Importing Countries

  • China: China imports 6.30 million barrels per day

  • U.S.A: USA imports 6.24 million barrels per day

  • India: India imports 3.86 million barrels per day

  • Japan: Japan imports 3.64 million barrels per day

  • Germany: Germany imports 2.67 million barrels per day

CRISIL launched Financial Inclusix Index 2013

Indian credit-rating agency CRISIL launched a Financial Inclusix  Index 2013 on 2 January 2014. The index showed an improvement in the financial inclusion in India. The index showed an improvement of 2.7 percent in the year 2012.

SSC-CR : Nomination List of Finally Selected Candidates of Junior Hindi Translator Examination 2013

Staff Selection Commission (Central Region)

Nomination List of Finally Selected Candidates of Junior Hindi Translator Examination 2013

Click Here To View Nomination List

Courtesy : SSC-CR

(Final Result) SSC : Recruitment of SI in Delhi Police, CAPFs,ASI in CISF Examination, 2013

Staff Selection Commission

(Result) Recruitment to Posts of SI in Delhi Police, CAPFs, ASI in CISF Examination, 2013

The Staff Selection Commission conducted a Written Examination for Recruitment of Sub-Inspectors in Delhi Police, CAPFs, Assistant Sub-inspectors in CISF on 23.06.2013 (Paper-I) and Paper-II on 06.10.2013(Forenoon). Since no cutoff was fixed by Commission in Paper-II, all the candidates qualified in PET and found FIT in Medical/Review Medical Examination qualified for Interview.

(Result) SSC-CHSLE : List of the candidates For Type Test/Data Entry Skill Test - 2013

Staff Selection Commission

Combined Higher Secondary (10+2) Examination, 2013

Re-Examination Written Result to call the candidates For Type Test/Data Entry Skill Test

In the Combined Higher Secondary (10+2) Examination, 2013 the result of the written examination was declared on 14.03.2014. Due to administrative reasons re-examination in some of the venues of NR, NER, MPR, ER, CR & WR was held on 30.03.2014. A total of 501 candidates appeared in the re-examination. Further 632 candidates were also considered while processing the result of above re-examination as post examination material of the above examination held earlier was received late.

Following is the lists of 04 candidates qualified provisionally for  typing test for LDC and 03 candidates for skill test for Data Entry Operator in the written part of the examination and are thus eligible to be called for Type Test/Data Entry Tests subject to their fulfilling all eligibility conditions and also correctness of the information furnished by them in their application. Preferences of the candidates have been taken from the data received from Regional Offices.

(Current Affairs For SSC Exams) India & The World | March, 2014

March 2014

India & The World


India and Japan inked several pacts during the official visit of the Prime Minister of Japan to India from 25 to 27 January 2014. Shinzo Abe, the Prime Minister of Japan was the Chief Guest of India on the occasion of the Republic Day parade on 26 January 2014. The sides signed memorandum for strengthening cooperation in the field of tourism, enhancing energy efficiency in telecom towers and power generation in the country. During this tour of Shino Abe, the two countries inked several pacts and they includes

Memorandum in tourism

India and Japan signed the Memorandum for strengthening cooperation in tourism on 22 January 2014. The Memorandum will facilitate travel and tourist visits and strengthen the tourism partnership between the two  countries. The main objectives of the Memorandum are:

  • To expand bilateral cooperation in the tourism sector

  • To exchange information and data related to tourism

  • To encourage cooperation between Tour Operators and  tourism stakeholders including Hotel owners

  • To establish exchange programmes for cooperation in  Human Resource Development

  • To exchange visits of Tour Operators/Media/ Opinion Makers for promotion of two way tourism

  • To exchange experience in the areas of promotion, marketing, destination development and management During 2013 India received 2.20 lakh tourists from Japan and the highest numbers of visas on arrival were issued to the tourists from Japan. Buddhist heritage sites are a great attraction for Japanese tourists to India.


India and Pakistan reached an agreement on providing Non Discriminatory Market Access (NDMA) in place of Most Favoured Nation status. The agreement on NDMA will help normalize bilateral trade between the two nations. This was stated in a Joint Statement released by the Commerce Ministers of two nations at the end of 5th SAARC Business Leaders Conclave held in New Delhi on 18 January 2014. The Pakistan Trade Minister Khurram Dastgir Khan on this occasion extended the invitation to Union Commerce and Industry Ministry Anand Sharma to visit Pakistan in February 2014. Highlights of Joint statement

  • Both the countries agreed to provide Non Discriminatory Market Access (NDMA) on reciprocal basis to establish normal trading relations. This includes issuing bank licences to allow banks to function in each other’s country.

  • Under agreed NDMA, India needs to open up to 614 items to Pakistan. Pakistan, on the other hand, needs to open up to India two lists comprising 936 and 1209 items

  • To intensify and accelerate the process of trade normalization, liberalization and facilitation and to implement the agreed measures before the end of February 2014

  • To make operational the Wagah – Attari Land Customs Station on all seven days of each week to provide the movement of containers, all tradable items by land route

  • To liberalize business visa regime for the business community of both the nations along the Wagah – Attari border

  • To convene the meetings of the technical working groups on Customs, Railways, Banking, Standards Organizations and Energy

  • To hold India Show in collaboration with FICCI in Lahore with the objective of enhancing bilateral trade in February 2014.

  • Along with India Show, a joint Vintage Car Rally between Amritsar and Lahore will be held to promote greater people to people contact The Third meeting of Joint Business Forum of Chief Executive Officers is scheduled in Pakistan for mid-February of 2014. The Joint Business Forum will help enhance trade cooperation in diverse sector such as textiles, tourism light  engineering, pharmaceuticals andothers.


India on 8 January 2014 asked the US to discontinue the commercial activities being undertaken from the US embassy premises in Delhi by 16 January 2014. The government of India has asked the embassy to stop its commercial activities being undertaken under the aegis of the American Community Support Association (ACSA), which includes bar, video club, restaurant, swimming pool, bowling alley, sports field, gym and beauty parlour. As per the sources, the Indian Government has asked US to provide the tax returns filed by it with the Indian authorities to start the commercial activities and afforded by ACSA. The services were offered to non-diplomatic persons, which also includes the private American citizens and their families. As per the authorities of India, the actions of ACSA are a violation of Article 41(3) of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations 1961, as it has given commercial facilities to non diplomats. This tough action of India came ahead of 13 January 2014, the date that has been set as the deadline for the indictment in New York of Khobragade, the Deputy Consul General in New York America on visa fraud charge


(Current Affairs For SSC Exams) International | March, 2014

March 2014

Japan’s population dipped to record low in 2013

The Health Ministry of Japan on 1 January 2014 estimated that a quarter of the population is currently aged over 65 and the figure is expected to reach nearly 40 percent by 2060. It has estimated that the population of the country in 2013 declined by a record 244000 people. It also says that if in case the same trend persists in future, the population of Japan will lose a third of its population in next 50 years. The estimate also highlights concern over the dwindling workforce of the country. As per the estimate, 103100 babies took birth in Japan in 2013, which fell by 6000 from the births of 2012. Apart from this, the deaths of the country increased by 19000 from 2012 to 1275000 people in 2013. These deaths were the highest annual deaths since World War II. To spur growth of the population, Japan had aggressively taken measures in recent months. At present, Japan’s economy is the third biggest economies of the world after years of stagnation. Prime Minister of Japan, Shino Abe is trying to boost its economy by a combination of its quantitative easing and cash ejections, which includes higher taxes, higher government spending and longer-term structural reforms.

IRENA and ADFD planned to bring Power to Rural Communities

The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the Abu Dhabi Fund for Development (ADFD) on 19 January 2014 announced approximately 41 million dollar in concessional loans for renewable energy projects in developing countries. The total combined capacity of the financed project is 35 MW and would bring reliable and sustainable power to rural communities that lack an access to modern energy services. The loan as per the plan will be dispensed to a geographically diverse countries namely Republic of Ecuador, Maldives, Sierra Leone, Mauritania, Mali and Samoa. The two institutions IRENA and ADFD have selected the projects to isolated off-grid populations in some cases it will be for the first time.

Analysis: This local economic development will stimulate in raising the living standards, as financing is one of the key issues renewable energy is facing particularly in the developing world. This is the reason because of which, the two institutions IRENA and ADFD teamed up to derisk investment in promising renewable projects. The UAE government has committed a total of 350 million dollar in concessional loans through ADFD to support the deployment and sustainable use of all forms of renewable energy in developing countries. The current financing cycle is the first of seven. IRENA is assessing the socioeconomic impact and technical merit
of the projects, and ADFD is making its selection based on the Agency’s recommendation. Projects selected need to be transformative, innovative and replicable.

Abu Dhabi Fund for Development (ADFD

Abu Dhabi Fund for Development (ADFD) was established back on 15 July 1971, as an independent subsidiary of Abu Dhabi Government, responsible for managing foreign aid. Over the years, it has established its position among the top development aid organizations worldwide. Since its establishment, ADFD has played an important role in advancing economic development in beneficiary countries by providing concessionary loans that enable these countries to surmount challenges, address economic problems, and improve the living standards of their people. The Fund has managed a quantum leap in its financial performance through investments and direct long-term contributions in active companies in strategic sectors of the developing countries, along with investing in a variety of financial instruments. To date, the total grants, loans provided and managed by ADFD and UAE government reached to arround AED 60 billion for financing 363 development operations in 63 countries around the world.

Lanka urged Maldives to allow its fishermen in territorial sea waters

Study Material for SSC CGL, CHSL, MTS, Prasar Bharti, FCI Exams : Puzzle Test (MCQ)

Puzzle Test (MCQ )

Directions (Q. No. 1-5): Study the given information carefully and answer the questions that follow :

(i) A, B, C, D, E, F and G are sitting on a wall and all of them are facing east.
(ii) C is on the immediate right of D.
(iii) B is at an extreme end and has E as his neighbour.
(iv) G is between E and F.
(v) D is sitting third from the south end.

SSC : Tentative Schedule For Result Declaration of SSC Examinations 2013

Staff Selection Commission

Tentative Schedule For Result Declaration of SSC Examinations 2013

Examination Name & Year

Tentative Date of Results

Stenographer Grade 'C' & 'D'
Examination 2013
Combined Higher Secondary Level
Examination 2013
Combined Recruitment for the post of
Engineering Assistant and Technician in
Prasar Bharati, Examination – 2013
Combined Recruitment for the post of
Programme Executive and Transmission
Executive in Prasar Bharati, Examination
– 2013
Recruitment of Constables(GD) in
CAPFs and Rifleman (GD) in Assam
Rifles , 2013

Click Here For Official Notification

Courtesy : SSC

SSC-NWR : Admit Card For Re - Examination of CHSL (10+2) Examination 2013 To Be Held On 20.04.2014

Staff Selection Commission (North Western Region)

Admit Card For Re - Examination For CHSL (10+2) Examination 2013 To Be Held On 20.04.2014

Click Here To Download Admit Card

Courtesy : SSC-NWR

SSC-NWR : Admit Card For Interview of Programme Executive and Transmission Executive Examination - 2013

Staff Selection Commission (North Western Region)

Admit Card For Interview of Programme Executive and Transmission Executive Examination - 2013 To Be Held On 21 And 22 April 2014

Click Here To Download Admit Card

SSC-CR : Download Admit Card For The Post of Horticulture Assistant GR.I, Advt. No. CR - 3/2013

Recruitment For The Post of Horticulture Assistant GR.I, Advt. No. CR - 3/2013, Cat. No. 06 Interview Date 05.05.2014

Interview for recruitment to the posts of Horticulture Assistant Grade-I in O/o the Archaeological Survey of India, Horticulture Branch, Agra (Advt. No. CR-3/2013 Cat. No.06) is scheduled to be held in the Staff Selection Commission, Central Region, 21-23 Lowther Road, Allahabad on 05.05.2014. The Candidates having 75% and above marks in Essential Qualification have been shortlisted for interview. As per the criteria so fixed 21 candidates have been found eligible for interview. The list containing Roll No., Name, DOB of the shortlisted candidates is as under (Call letters have been sent to candidates by Speed Post) Candidates may download the Call Letters from our web-site:  also.

SSC-WR : Addendum Concerning Interview of Programme / Transmission Executive in Prasar Bharti 2013

Staff Selection Commission (Western Region)

Addendum Concerning Interview of Programme / Transmission Executive in Prasar Bharti 2013

This is in continuation to this office letter of even no dtd 27.03.2014 regarding interview of Programme/ Transmission Executive in Prasar Bharti 2013.

The commission has decided that candidate may be allowed to change their options during the document verification conducted at the time of interview. A fresh option form is attached herewith for exercising options at the time of interview. While exercising fresh options you are requested to exercise option only for the posts/ languages for which you are eligible as per the notice of the said examination. You may carefully go through the notice of the examination published in the website and employment news  (23-29 March 2013) and corrigendum issued before exercising your option in the option  form. Option exercised at the time of document verification will be final and no change will  be allowed under any circumstances.

All other instructions contained in the letter of even no dtd 27.03.2014 remain  unchanged.

Important Links :

(Alert) SSC : No Change of CGL-2013 Re-Exam's Date

Combined Graduate Level (Tier-1) Examination - 2013

No Change of The Date for CGL-2013 Re-Examination

SSC-SR : Instructions for Stenography Test on Computer Proficiency Test April 2014

Staff Selection Commission (SR) Chennai

Instructions to the Candidates for Stenography / Proficiency Test for Stenographer (OG) / Grade ‘D’ & Grade ‘C’ & Departmental Examinations

1. The Commission will provide the Computer and Shorthand Notebook for the  test.

2. For stenography test (on computer) at the speed of 100/120 wpm for  Proficiency test for Stenographers for grant of advance increments is as under:

Speed  w.p.m. Duration of  Dictation Time allowed for reading the dictation taken Time allowed for transcription on computer
100 w.p.m. 10 minutes 10 minutes 40 minutes
120 w.p.m. 07 minutes 10 minutes 35 minutes

3. Candidates are required to report to the Supervisor at the reporting time indicated on their Admission Certificate. The candidate must bring original Admission Certificate issued to him/her by the Commission for securing admission to the Test of Stenography.

(Current Affairs For SSC Exams) Economic | February : 2014

February 2014

RBI in Mid-Quarter Monetary Policy Review

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in its mid-quarter Monetary Policy Review, announced on 18 December 2013, has kept the policy rate unchanged at 7.75%. The move was unexpected in light of the recent spike in inflation, especially food inflation. This has come as welcome relief for the industry which already is battling gloomy economic environment as indicated 1.8% growth in industrial output in November 2013. The RBI’s policy decision to keep the policy rate unchanged is based on the assessment that there exists great deal of uncertainty with respect to the short-term path of inflation from its high current levels. Besides, given the weak state of the economy, RBI felt that it would be unwise to adopt an overtly reactive policy action. It would be more prudent to determine the lag-effect of monetary policy.

Thus, on the basis of an assessment of the current and evolving macroeconomic situation, the RBI decided to:

  • Keep the policy Repo Rate under the Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) unchanged at 7.75%, and

  • Keep the Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) of scheduled banks unchanged at 4.0% of the Net Demand and Time Liability (NDTL).As a result, the reverse repo rate under the LAF will remain unchanged at 6.75%, and the Marginal Standing Facility (MSF) rate and the Bank Rate at 8.75%

About Policy Rates

Basis points: It is the increase in interest rates in percentage terms. For instance, if the interest rate increases by 50 basis points (bsp), then it means that interest rate has been increase by 50%. One percentage point is broken down into 100 basis points. Therefore, an increase from 2% to 3% is an increase of one percentage point or 100 basis points.

Repo rate: Repo rate is the policy rate and is part of RBI’s Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF). It is the rate at which commercial banks borrow from the RBI by selling their securities or financial assets to the RBI for a short-period of time. It comes with an agreement that the sold securities will be repurchased by the commercial banks from the RBI at a future date at predetermined price. The repo rate is used by the central bank to increase liquidity in the system.

Reverse repo rate: Reverse Repo Rate is also a part of LAF. It is the rate of interest at which the central bank borrows funds from other banks for a short duration. The banks deposit their short term excess funds with the central bank and earn interest on it. This rate is used by the central bank to absorb liquidity from the economy. Generally it is one percentage less than the Repo rate. Bank rate: The only way the bank rate is different from the repo rate is that the bank rate is the rate at which banks borrow money from the central bank without any sale of securities. It is generally for a longer period of time.

Cash reserve ratio: CRR is the minimum percentage of cash deposits that banks must keep with the central bank. The current rate is 4%, which means for a cash deposit of Rs. 100, the bank has to park 4 rupee with the central bank. Marginal Standing Facility: The Reserve Bank of India in its monetary policy for 2011-12 introduced the marginal standing facility under which banks could borrow funds from RBI when there is a considerable shortfall of liquidity. This measure has been introduce by RBI to regulate short-term asset liability mismatches more effectively. Under this facility, banks can borrow up to 1% of their net demand. Liquidity Adjustment Facility: Under this facility, banks borrow from the central bank by pledging government securities.

Statutory Liquidity Ratio: This is the percentage of deposits that banks must mandatorily hold in the form of government bonds. SLR bonds are liquid assets that can be sold at a short notice to meet any unexpected demand from depositors

PPPAC appraised five Port Projects

The Public Private Partnership Appraisal Committee (PPPAC-a high level committee of the Government of India) on 30 December 2013 appraised five proposals in the Port Sector. These projects will now be recommended for grant of final approval by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA). For this purpose of approval of the CCEA, a Cabinet Note will be submitted by the Ministry of Shipping. The five projects are

  • Development of 4th Container Terminal at Jawaharlal Nehru  Port Trust (JNPT) on DBFOTDesign, Build, Finance,Operate and Transfer basis

  • Development of Container Terminal at Ennore Port Limited (EPL) on DBFOT

  • Development of Multipurpose Cargo at Mumbai Port Trust (MPT) on DBFOT

  • Development of Mega Container Terminal at Tuna Tekra at Kandla Port (KPT) on BOT

  • Development of Container Terminal at Diamond Harbour at Kolkata Port Trust (KoPT) on BOT

These projects are proposed to be awarded in the current financial year by various Major Ports for implementation under Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode. The proposed projects are to create an additional capacity of 150 MMTPA with an investment of about 17630 Crores rupees. In the year 2013, the Ministry of Shipping has so far conveyed approval for 16 projects against a target of 30 and the major ports have already awarded these projects. Of the 16 projects that has been granted an approval includes six under PPP and 10 projects are under non-PPP mode. It is expected that these projects will add a capacity of 89 MMTPA with an investment of 4200 crore rupees.

PSB’s to Act as Insurance Brokers

The Union Finance Ministry on 23 December 2013 directed public sector banks (PSBs) to act as insurance brokers from 15 January 2014. In the Budget speech 2013- 14, the Finance Ministry remarked that banks will be permitted to act as insurance brokers to increase insurance penetration and mis-selling of insurance products

(Current Affairs For SSC Exams) India & The World | February, 2014

February 2014


United States on 29 December 2013 initiated an inter-agency review to look at the lapses that happened in the Devyani Khobragade case that triggered uproar in India and strained bilateral ties. The decision on the
review was taken following a tough stand of India on the arrest of Devyani Khobragade. The US departments involved in the review include the National Security Council of the White House, the State Department and the Justice Department. The matter of the diplomat has now landed up in the judiciary and it mainly depends on the judges for which the two bodies are engaged actively. There was a judgmental error in handling the case and an inter agency team that is led by the State Department is working 24x7 to get resolved the issue as quickly it is possible. Devyani Khobragade a 1999-batch IFS officer is the India’s Deputy Consul General in New York was arrested on alleged visa fraud charges. Devyani, the 39- year-old diplomat was strip searched and held with the criminals on the charges of making false declarations in the visa application of her maid Sangeeta Richard. In respond to it India reacted strongly by downgrading the privileges of certain category of US diplomats among other steps


Sri Lankan court on 26 December 2013 extended the remand of 111 Indian fishermen, who were caught by the Navy of the country in December 2013. The Trincomalee magistrate’s court has extended the remand on the charges of violating the international maritime boundary. The court has held 6 January 2013 to review the case. The same court, earlier also extended the remand of two groups of 30 fishermen each. Rajitha Senaratne, the Fisheries Minister of Sri Lanka has said that none of the boats or the fishermen of India will be released until the 200 Sri Lankan fishermen, who are in the custody of the India were released. As per the Fisheries Minister of Sri Lanka, the two countries will held a meeting of the representative of the fishermen’s associations of the two countries in January 2013. Also the Senaratne will visit New Delhi in January 2013 to discuss the issue with Sharad Pawar, the Union Agriculture Minister, who also holds the charge of the Indian fisheries department. Maritime Boundaries: India and Sri Lanka The Government of the Republic of India and the Republic of Sri Lanka signed an agreement on 23 March 1976, establishing maritime boundaries in the Gulf of Manaar and the Bay of Bengal. Ratifications were exchanged and the agreement entered into force on 10 May 1976, two years after the two countries negotiated a boundary in the Palk Strait.

Article V of the signed agreement mentions

  • (1) Each Party shall have sovereignty over the historic waters and territorial sea, as well as over the islands, falling on its side of the aforesaid boundary.

  • (2) Each Party shall have sovereign rights and exclusive jurisdiction over the continental shelf and the exclusive economic zone as well as over their resources, whether living or non-living, falling on its side of the aforesaid boundary.

  • (3) Each Party shall respect rights of navigation through its territorial sea and exclusive economic zone in accordance with its laws and regulations and the rules of international law.


Director Generals Military Operations (DGMO) of India and Pakistan took place on 24 December 2013 along the Wagah-Attari border. The meeting was held to work out a mechanism to ease tension between the two sides and to ensure peace at the Line of Control (LoC). Lieutenant General Vinod Bhatia led the Indian side, whereas, Major General Aamer Riaz headed the Pakistani side. A brigadier and three lieutenant colonels also participated in the talks from both each side. The DGMO level talks of the two nations have been held after 14 years. Last time the key army commaders of India and Pakistan met in July 1999 after the Kargil war. The decision of holding the meet between India and Pakistan DGMOs was taken at political level. The DGMOs of the two country discussed major issues that pertains to tension on the LoC. They also discussed issues on the working boundary with a focus to maintain ceasefire and bring normalcy. The two sides met, three months before the proposed meeting of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and his Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif to
defuse tensions. Initially Pakistan proposed to include the Foreign  Ministry officials in the meet of themilitary officers, which was rejected by India. In 1949, United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) was established. It was established under the resolution passed by the world body’s council to supervise ceasefire along the LoC.

Study Material for SSC CGL, CHSL, MTS, Prasar Bharti, FCI Exams : Syllogism


The word ‘Syllogism’ is also referred to ‘Logic’. Syllogism is an important section of logical reasoning and hence, a working knowledge of its rules is required on the part of the candidate. Hence, it can be expressed as the ‘Science of thought as expressed in language’. The questions based on syllogism can be solved by using Venn diagrams and some rules devised with the help of analytical ability. With this unique characteristic, this test becomes an instrument of teaching the candidates to follow the rules and work as per the instructions without an error. Here, only the basic concept and rules, which have a bearing on reasoning faculty could alone help. There are some terminology which are used in syllogism.


It is also referred to as ‘Premises’. It is a sentence which asserts that either a part of, or the whole of, one sets of objects-the set identified by the subject term in the sentence expressing that sentence either is included in, or is excluded from, another set-the set identified by the predicate term in that sentence.

Types of Proposition

  1. Categorical Proposition: There is relationship between the subject and the predicate without any condition.
  2. Hypothetical Proposition: There is relationship between subject and predicate which is asserted conditionally.
  3. Disjunctive Proposition In a disjunctive proposition the assertion is of alteration.
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